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G10: Biomedical

Biomedical Implants

An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure. Medical implants are man-made devices, in contrast to a transplant, which is a transplanted biomedical tissue. The surface of implants that contact the body might be made of a biomedical material such as titanium, silicone, or apatite depending on what is the most functional. In some cases implants contain electronics, e.g. artificial pacemaker and cochlear implants. Some implants are bioactive, such as subcutaneous drug delivery devices in the form of implantable pills or drug-eluting stents.  (Wikipedia)

A list of Medical Implants found on Wikipedia

Sensory and neurological

Sensory and neurological implants are used for disorders affecting the major senses and the brain, as well as other neurological disorders. They are predominately used in the treatment of conditions such as cataract, glaucoma, keratoconus, and other visual impairments; otosclerosis and other hearing loss issues, as well as middle ear diseases such as otitis media; and neurological diseases such as epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and treatment-resistant depression. Examples include the intraocular lens, intrastromal corneal ring segment, cochlear implant, tympanostomy tube, and neurostimulator.

Cardiovascular

Cardiovascular medical devices are implanted in cases where the heart, its valves, and the rest of the circulatory system is in disorder. They are used to treat conditions such as heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, ventricular tachycardia, valvular heart disease, angina pectoris, and atherosclerosis. Examples include the artificial heart, artificial heart valve, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, cardiac pacemaker, and coronary stent.

Orthopedic

Orthopedic implants help alleviate issues with the bones and joints of the body. They're used to treat bone fractures, osteoarthritis, scoliosis, spinal stenosis, and chronic pain. Examples include a wide variety of pins, rods, screws, and plates used to anchor fractured bones while they heal.

Metallic glasses based on magnesium with zinc and calcium addition are tested as the potential metallic biomaterials for biodegradable medical implants.

Patients with orthopedic implants sometimes need to be put under a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine for detailed musculoskeletal study. Therefore, concerns have been raised regarding the loosening and migration of the implant, heating of the implant metal which could cause thermal damage to surrounding tissues, and distortion of the MRI scan that affects the imaging results. A study of orthopedic implants in 2005 has shown that the majority of the orthopedic implants do not react with magnetic fields under the 1.0 Tesla MRI scanning machine with the exception of external fixator clamps. However, at 7.0 Tesla, several orthopedic implants would show significant interaction with the MRI magnetic fields, such as heel and fibular implant.

Electric

Electrical implants are being used to relieve pain and suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. The electric implant is embedded in the neck of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the implant sends electrical signals to electrodes in the vagus nerve. The application of this device is being tested as an alternative to medicating sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis for their lifetime.

Contraception

Contraceptive implants are primarily used to prevent unintended pregnancy and treat conditions such as non-pathological forms of menorrhagia. Examples include copper- and hormone-based intrauterine devices.

Cosmetic

Cosmetic implants — often prosthetics — attempt to bring some portion of the body back to an acceptable aesthetic norm. They are used as a follow-up to mastectomy due to breast cancer, for correcting some forms of disfigurement and modifying aspects of the body (as in buttock augmentation and chin augmentation). Examples include the breast implant, nose prosthesis, ocular prosthesis, and injectable filler.

Other organs and systems

Other types of organ dysfunction can occur in the systems of the body, including the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urological systems. Implants are used in those and other locations to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastroparesis, respiratory failure, sleep apnea, urinary and fecal incontinence, and erectile dysfunction. Examples include the LINX, implantable gastric stimulator, diaphragmatic/phrenic nerve stimulator, neurostimulator, surgical mesh, artificial urinary sphincter, and penile implant.

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A list of Physical Properties found on ThoughtCo.

These are characteristics that you can observe and measure without altering a sample. Unlike chemical properties, you do not need to change the nature of a substance to measure any physical property it might have. 

  • Absorption
  • Albedo
  • Area
  • Brittleness
  • Boiling point
  • Capacitance
  • Color
  • Concentration
  • Density
  • Dielectric constant
  • Ductility
  • Distribution
  • Efficacy
  • Electric charge
  • Electrical conductivity
  • Electrical impedance
  • Electrical resistivity
  • Electric field
  • Electric potential
  • Emission
  • Flexibility
  • Flow rate
  • Fluidity
  • Frequency
  • Inductance
  • Intrinsic impedance
  • Intensity
  • Irradiance
  • Length
  • Location
  • Luminance
  • Luster
  • Malleability
  • Magnetic field
  • Magnetic flux
  • Mass
  • Melting point
  • Moment
  • Momentum
  • Permeability
  • Permittivity
  • Pressure
  • Radiance
  • Resistivity
  • Reflectivity
  • Solubility
  • Specific heat
  • Spin
  • Strength
  • Temperature
  • Tension
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Velocity
  • Viscosity
  • Volume
  • Wave impedance

A list of Chemical Properties found on ThoughtCo.

Chemical properties are any of the properties of matter that can be observed and measured only by performing a chemical change or chemical reaction. Chemical properties cannot be determined by touching or viewing a sample; the structure of the sample must be altered for the chemical properties to become apparent.

Here are some examples of chemical properties:

  • Reactivity with other chemicals
  • Toxicity
  • Coordination number
  • Flammability
  • Enthalpy of formation
  • Heat of combustion
  • Oxidation states
  • Chemical stability
  • Types of chemical bonds that will form
  • Electronegativity
  • Solubility
  • Acidity/basicity
  • The degree of ionization

Uses

Scientists use chemical properties to predict whether a sample will participate in a chemical reaction. Chemical properties can be used to classify compounds and find applications for them.

Understanding a material's chemical properties helps in its purification, separation from other chemicals, or identification in an unknown sample.

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What are bioceramics and biomaterials?-video and transcript of the video

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